When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5,000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization).
The name 'India' is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu. The Persians converted it into Hindu. The name 'Hindustan' combines Sindhu and Hindu, and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.
The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6,000 years ago. The very word 'navigation' is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'.
World's first university
The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.
Father of surgery
Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over 2,600 years ago, Sushrata and his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries.
Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2,500 years ago.
India never invaded any country in her last 100,000 years of history.
It was invented in India.
The oldest European church and synagogue in India are in the city of Cochin. They were built in 1503 and 1568, respectively.
Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.
Rich and mighty
India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India's wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America.
Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India. Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10* 53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C. during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12 (10 to the power of 12).
The value of 'pi'
It was first calculated by the Indian mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before other mathematicians.
House of diamonds
Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world
(Source: Gemological Institute of America).
Birthplace of religions
The four religions born in India – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism – are followed by 25 percent of the world's population.
Islam is India's and the world's second largest religion.
There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than in any other country, including those in the Muslim world.
Martial Arts were first created in India and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.
Oldest inhabited city
Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called "the Ancient City" when Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.